Principle and Theory of Composting Technology

Composting has proven to be an effective method for converting organic waste into valuable products. However, there is a growing need for innovative treatment processes that can efficiently and effectively stabilize waste, reduce odors, manage nutrients, and save time and space. These engineered solutions can help to address the increasing amount of organic by-products generated and contribute to a more sustainable future.

The composting-free technology effectively meets the aforementioned requirements and produces high-quality by-products in a time frame of 3 to 24 hours. In addition, it saves valuable labor, reduces wastewater and odor generation, making it a highly efficient and practical solution for organic waste management.

Novel Composting-Free Technology

The composting-free technology is adaptable to different types and amounts of organic waste. Its processes and devices are adjusted according to the specific characteristics of the waste. Yes-Sun’s patented “Composting-free Technology” is a rapid, stable, and safe innovation based on biophysical principles that integrate microbial, biochemical, organic, and soil technologies. This technology produces a high-quality soil conditioner and organic fertilizer.

Novel Composting-Free Technology

The composting-free technology is a novel approach that follows the metabolic principles of food in the human digestive system. This technology subverts traditional methods while still retaining the ancient knowledge of natural composting-free systems. Despite the rapid development of new treatment technologies, the traditional knowledge and values often get ignored. However, the composting-free technology is based on the principle of the human digestive system, which is easy to understand and relate to. The process can be explained using a model of the digestive and excretory system of the human body.

Application Ranges

Organic wastes from various sources can be treated with composting-free technology. These include organic refuse from gardens, playgrounds, lawn clippings, vegetable residues, mushroom houses, forestry, livestock industries, aquaculture farms, fish farms, and more.
Daily organic wastes include organic waste generated from households, municipalities, military installations, societal organizations, motels, restaurants, schools, and prisons.
Industrial organic waste refers to organic waste generated from various industries such as food processing, wineries, slaughterhouses, markets, hospitals, hotels, pharmaceutical plants, pulping, and mud and leather manufacturing.

Carbon footprint of Composting-free Technology

The earliest concept of the carbon footprint originated from the ecological footprint, which aimed to calculate how much ecological area is needed to support the consumption and service demands of each person’s daily life.

The carbon footprint is measured by the quantification of CO2 emissions directly and indirectly throughout a product’s entire life cycle. A life cycle refers to the continuous and interconnected processes of a product system, from the extraction of natural resources or the production of raw materials to the final treatment (CNS 14040:2006-3.1).

The importance of「Carbon Footprint」

Enterprises assess greenhouse gas emissions in a product’s life cycle to identify carbon reduction potential. These assessments reveal opportunities for reducing waste and emissions, helping businesses select appropriate strategies. With growing demand for supply chain transparency, consumers and investors encourage enterprises to address greenhouse gas issues. Product carbon footprint assessments can be part of corporate social responsibility reports. By choosing products with carbon labels, consumers promote green consumption, helping clients understand their impact on global warming and encouraging eco-friendly practices.

Carbon Footprint

Requirement of supply chain in international and each country

Carbon Footprint

The Principle of Reducing Carbon from Composting-free Technology

Composting-Free Treatment for Carbon Reduction

Carbon Footprint Analysis Results

In order to analyze the data obtained and conduct a carbon footprint analysis of the services, this project uses the German life cycle assessment software GaBi4 version The carbon footprint assessment results are reported for each functional unit of the “Composting-free waste treatment services.”

Yes-Sun manufactures composting-free equipment and sells it to users. The Composting-free services unit calculates the carbon emissions during the stages of service material acquisition, service provision, and final disposal. The carbon emissions from waste generated during the treatment process are included in the service stage.

Composting-Free Treatment for Carbon Reduction

Greenhouse Gas Emissions of each Stage of Composting-free Services Life Cycle

Material stage CO2e: 2.0735E+00 kg CO2e/ton
Service stage CO2e: 4.6232E+01 kg CO2e/ton
Dispose stage CO2e: 0.0000E+00 kg CO2e/ton

The composting-free service distribution ratio for raw material and service stage carbon emissions is as follows: After analysis, each 1 ton of waste treated by the composting-free service has a carbon footprint of 48.306 kgCO2e. According to the EPA, waste incineration service produces a carbon footprint of 606 kgCO2e from garbage incinerators, while the number for the southern scientific industrial zone is 707 kgCO2e.

Referring to the Waste Soil Reservation Journal Vol. 45 No. 1, “Estimation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Different Kitchen Waste Treatment Methods under the IPCC Method,” we find that each ton of kitchen waste treatment has a GHG emission of 33.759 kg CO2e.

Composting-Free Equipment and Processed Carbon Footprint

Draft System Boundary Document: Create a document that outlines the system boundaries for the analysis, including the stages and processes involved, as well as any assumptions made.

Activity Data Survey and Form Filling: Conduct a survey to gather relevant activity data, such as energy consumption, resource usage, and waste generation, for each stage within the system boundaries. Fill out the appropriate forms with the collected data.

Collect Relevant Supporting Documents and File: Gather and organize any supporting documents, such as energy bills, resource purchase records, and waste disposal records, that are relevant to the activity data survey. File these documents for future reference and verification purposes.

Implement Internal Verification and Data Revision: Carry out a comprehensive internal verification process to validate the accuracy and completeness of the collected data. Revise any discrepancies or inconsistencies found in the data to ensure reliable results.

Calculate Target Product Carbon Footprint using GaBi Software: Enter the verified data into the GaBi lifecycle assessment software, developed by Germany, to calculate the carbon footprint of the target product. Follow the software’s guidelines to ensure accurate results and meaningful insights into the product’s lifecycle emissions.

Finalize System Boundary Specification Document: After completing the internal verification and software calculations, finalize the system boundary specification document. This document outlines the scope and boundaries of the product carbon footprint assessment, providing a clear understanding of the environmental impact of the product throughout its life cycle.

Data Correction and Product Carbon Footprint Confirmation after Software Calculation: After obtaining the results from the GaBi software, review the data to ensure accuracy and make any necessary corrections. Confirm the final product carbon footprint based on the corrected data, ensuring that it accurately represents the product’s environmental impact throughout its life cycle.

Compile the Carbon Footprint Inventory: Organize the data and results obtained from the software calculation into a comprehensive carbon footprint inventory. This inventory should detail the greenhouse gas emissions associated with each stage of the product’s life cycle, providing a clear understanding of the product’s overall carbon footprint.

Write a Product Carbon Footprint Survey Report: Prepare a detailed report on the product carbon footprint assessment, outlining the methodology, data sources, and results obtained from the software calculation. The report should also include recommendations for reducing the product’s carbon footprint and improving its environmental performance. This report can be used to inform stakeholders, such as customers, suppliers, and investors, about the product’s environmental impact and the company’s commitment to sustainability.

Document Review Related Information:

— Product Carbon Footprint Report
— Send the required documents to the verification company
— Carbon Footprint Inventory
— System Boundary Specification File
— Prepare relevant supporting documents for external audit

External Verification

— Prepare documents required for relevant audits
— Arrange relevant departments to cooperate with the audit
— Cooperate with external verification
— Provide factory consultation
— Correct any related issues or missing information.

Carbon Footprint

Operation standard of carbon footprint

Current Carbon Footprint Reference Standard in Taiwan


The current carbon footprint reference standards in Taiwan include BSI: PAS 2050:2011 and EPA of Executive Yuan’s footprint calculation reference based on PAS 2050:2008 and coordinated with ISO 14067WD2 edition. These standards provide specifications for assessing the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of goods and services and guidelines for calculating carbon footprints.

International Carbon Footprint Reference Standard


ISO/TS14067:2013 is an international standard for the carbon footprint of products, providing requirements and guidelines for quantification and communication of greenhouse gases. It is reviewed every three years by the “Specification of Technology” and can either become an international standard or be cancelled. The standard mainly covers carbon footprint quantification and public communication.

Other International Carbon Footprint Reference Standard


WRI/WBCSD provides guidelines for calculating and reporting the carbon footprint of goods and the value chain of enterprises. Japan has the TS Q 0010 standard, while Germany has its own Product Carbon Footprint standard, which focuses on methodology and communication.

Carbon Footprint Certificates