Definition of Organic Waste

  • What is「Organic Waste 」?

    Organic wastes have different interpretations in different areas:

    「Organic」in Chemistry field: The compound consists of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen etc 。

    「Organic」in Biology and Environment field: The material comes from the once living units, such as animals, plants and microorganisms。

    Organic wastes can refer to the residue of plants, animal and microbes, or waste materials naturally generated from all living things 。


  • Organic waste types:

    In Taiwan, the organic waste can be divided into three categories, which are “Industrial organic waste”, “Agriculture organic waste” and “household organic waste”. The household part is approximately 10%, the industrial and the agriculture accounts for 40% and 50% respectively。

    The organic wastes of industry:Food processing manufacturing industry, brewery, slaughter house, restaurant, market, hospital, hotel, vegetative raw material for medicine, papermaking, sludge, and tannery etc。

    The organic waste of agriculture:farming, forestry, fishing and gardening, fruits and vegetables, mushroom, farm, forest, livestock breeding farm, fishery cultivation factory, pig and cow stock farm etc。

    The organic wastes of household:food waste from kitchen, institution, army, school, and prison etc。


  • The influence of organic waste:

    The organic wastes are the major raw material of organic fertilizer. When the soil is deficient in organic materials, the fertility will be degraded and the health of crops will surely be affected. Thus, humans must use more chemical fertilizers and pesticides to cultivate。

    It is similar that we will have to take medicines when our body is short of nutrition and susceptible to illness。

    Excessive dose of chemical fertilizers and pesticides may remain on foods. Long-term consumption of these chemical toxins will accumulate in our body and cause various disease 。


The types of organic wastes can be classified into three categories:「Agricultural Organic Waste」「Industrial Organic Waste」and「Daily Organic Waste」

Agriculture, forestry, fishery, poultry, and livestock waste –Waste from processing of animals or cultivating of plants

  • Agriculture and horticulture: Cereals, grains, mushrooms, vegetables, fruits, palm, olive, flowers, beans, etc. —>Residue of crop
  • Forestry: Forest logging, wood processing, driftwood, etc. —>Residue from forestry
  • Fishery: Fish, shrimp, shellfish, ornamental fish, etc. —>Waste from breeding
  • Poultry: Chicken, duck, bird, goose, etc. —>Manure
  • Livestock: pig, cow, cattle, goat, sheep, horse, rabbit, deer, etc. —>Manure


Industrial Waste – Waste from business activities for food, entertainment, service, culture, medication, etc.

  • Food processing: Vegetable, cookies, drink, frozen, coffee, tea, dairy, grains, cereal, beans, etc. —>Residue of processing
  • Slaughterhouse, fresh-caught processing, cannery, meat processing, etc. —> Waste with or without oil(fat)
  • Winery, distiller, vineyard, sugar refinery, oil extraction factory, pharmaceutist biotechnology, energy mining, industrial parks, etc. —>Lees, distiller’s grains, pharmaceutical wastes, residue of animal and plants, kitchen waste, sludge
  • Paper mill, biogas, polluted water treatment, leather industry, etc. —>Organic sludge, fur and leather
  • Hotels, resorts, restaurants, central kitchens, hospitals, nursing homes, etc. —>Vegetable and fruit, kitchen waste, garden waste
  • Super market, wholesale market, hypermarket, traditional markets, department stores, etc. —>Vegetable and fruit, expiry food
  • Zoo, parks, road greenness, construction, decoration, furniture manufacturing, etc. —>Animal manure, food waste, garden waste, wood waste


Daily Waste – Waste from daily life, food, drink, etc.

  • Organizations, environmental agencies, local governments, etc. —> Fruits and vegetables, kitchen waste, garden waste
  • Army, ships, ports, defense agencies, military schools, etc. —>Fruits and vegetables, kitchen waste, garden waste
  • Communities, apartment, houses, buildings, villages, etc. —>Fruits and vegetables, kitchen waste, garden waste
  • Elementary school, high schools, colleges, universities, institutions, kindergartens, etc. —>Fruits and vegetables, kitchen waste, garden waste
  • Prisons, detention centers, etc. —>Fruits and vegetables, kitchen waste, garden waste



The organic waste listed above shouldn’t contain heavy metals, pathogens or other pollutants.


  • Japan produces about 400 million tons of business waste each year and 50 million tons of municipal waste, of which about 40% of urban waste is kitchen waste, which is 20 million tons. According to 2010 statistics show that about 48% of the kitchen waste is recycled, these recycling methods, including pig, compost … and other treatment. But the kitchen waste in the business like the market did not sell the food, expired food and so did not recover, but directly into the incinerator。


  • Germany and Austria, some 75% of organic wastes are composted for recycling, including large composting compartments and their own composting composts, as a result of resource recovery and environmental protection。


  • The Nordic countries are committed to reducing food waste and making good use of kitchen waste, so the government has invested $ 700,000 to build a small demonstration plant in Biogas to collect and dispose of kitchen waste。